What is PSD2? Key Principles & Requirements

PSD2, which stands for the Payment Services Directive 2, is a groundbreaking European regulation that started open banking in Europe by requiring banks and account providers to share data with third-party providers. Enacted by the European Commission in 2018, PSD2 marks the beginning of a new era in the realm of finance. This directive was formulated as a response to the dynamic electronic payment market, which witnessed the rise of novel payment services and providers.

what is psd2

PSD2 Principles & Requirements

PSD2’s main goal is promoting innovation, competition, and efficiency in the retail payment market within the European Union. It also focuses on enhancing security standards for online payments to increase consumer confidence while conducting transactions online.

The directive not only covers traditional payment services but also includes emerging players like fintechs. These new entrants in the market are referred to as third-party payment service providers (TPPs), who offer innovative payment services. They include:

  • Payment Initiation Service Providers (PISPs): These entities initiate payments on behalf of customers, assuring retailers that the payment is in progress.
  • Account Information Service Providers (AISPs): They consolidate a user's account and transaction details from multiple banks into a single portal.

The banks are required to share customer data with TPPs under PSD2, meaning that the directive is enabling open banking. Yet data sharing is possible only when customers explicitly provide their consent.

This principle of data-sharing aims to dismantle the long-standing monopoly that banks have held over customer information. It's important to highlight that while banks have a duty to share this data, they are also obligated by stringent regulations to safeguard the security and privacy of customer information.

In addition, PSD2 requires Strong Customer Authentication (SCA) for accessing payment accounts and making online payments. This means that users must provide at least two of the following elements: something they know (such as a password), something they possess (like a card or phone), and something they are (biometrics).

Benefits of PSD2 for Consumers & Merchants

The PSD2 regulation brought a plethora of advantages to both consumers and merchants, reshaping the way they interact with financial services:

  • Empowered Consumers: PSD2 places consumers at the helm of their financial data. They can now decide who can access their data and for what purpose, ensuring greater control and transparency in their financial dealings.
  • Robust Security Protocols: The introduction of Strong Customer Authentication (SCA) under PSD2 ensures that online transactions are fortified against potential threats, significantly reducing the risk of fraud and unauthorised access.
  • Diverse Financial Ecosystem: By mandating banks to share data with TPPs, PSD2 has paved the way for a surge in innovative financial products and services. Consumers and merchants can now choose from a wider array of banking solutions tailored to their specific needs.
  • Seamless Payment Experiences: With direct payment initiations via PISPs, transactions become more streamlined. Merchants can receive payments faster, and consumers can enjoy a smoother checkout experience without needing multiple intermediaries.
  • Cost Efficiency: The increased competition in the financial sector, spurred by PSD2, will likely drive down costs. Merchants can expect reduced transaction fees, and consumers can benefit from competitive pricing and better service offerings.


The implementation of PSD2 signifies a pivotal moment in the European financial realm. With a focus on consumer empowerment, heightened transaction security, and fostering a competitive landscape, it presents an inclusive and forward-thinking future for the financial sector.

AS banks open their doors to third-party providers, consumers can expect to access a wider range of modernised financial solutions. Embracing the principles of PSD2 ensures regulatory compliance and sets the stage for a transparent, efficient, and customer-centric financial environment across Europe.

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